Chapter 08 – Dating and Mate Selection

Related link pages Human Evolution theory Charles Darwin, pictured – left – as a young man , whom many people consider to have been the originator of Evolutionary Theory as applicable both to animal life generally and to Humanity in particular, actually shares with Alfred Russel Wallace the attribution for independent development of Modern Evolutionary Theory. Neither of them were to be the first to go so far as to explicitly take the step of subjecting Mankind to Evolutionary Theory speculations. Darwin, born in into quite a comfortable background as the son of a well-regarded and prosperous doctor based in Shrewsbury, England, was an avid beetle collector in his teenage-years who abandoned medical studies after being appalled by the sufferings of patients undergoing the surgical techniques of the day, without relief from anaesthetics , and then entered Christ’s College, Cambridge, with the view of becoming a country parson. In those times it was quite accepted for clergymen to interest themselves in Natural History as part of God’s creation. Whilst at Cambridge his interest in Natural History led to informal contacts with professors of Botany and Geology and, through these contacts, to an invitation to join HMS Beagle on an exploratory voyage to South America and beyond as a geologist. This invitation arrived just as Darwin had completed his university degree course and effectively postponed his actually becoming ordained as a clergyman.

What is Darwin’s Theory of Evolution?

Even with evolved cultural intricacies, we still use our subconscious in mate selection. According to the evolutionary attraction theory, heterosexual males select mates with physical indicators of fertility while women select mates for short term and long-term purposes. Mate selection is based on both physical indicators of fertility as well as the ability to provide resources necessary to care for offspring. Males have traditionally provided for the family by working a job and providing financial security while women reared children.

In a modern context, gender roles have shifted as women are becoming more educated and involved in the workforce.

Darwin, Then and Now – a chronicle of the rise and fall of the theory of evolution. The book focuses on who Darwin was, what motivated him, what he said, and what scientists have discovered since the publication of The Origin of Species in

Public Opinion Introduction The television, newspapers, and textbooks commonly proclaim, as though it were proven fact, that the earth is 4 to 5 billion years old. What is not commonly taught is how the scientists determined that age. What assumptions did they make? What evidence did they use? What evidence did they discard? We will examine these questions in this article. We will see that the scientists began with the assumptions that a.

The scientists did not come to these conclusions based upon on an examination of the evidence. They simply made these assumptions from the beginning. We will also show that they use some of the most unreliable measurements available as evidence that the earth is very old, while at the same time they discard the overwhelming majority of the evidence which shows that the earth is very young. They also attempt to reinforce their error by claiming that various geological processes took millions of years to complete, even though there is ample evidence to prove that these processes took place very rapidly.

The Age of the Earth

Today we search for soul mates. Look around you in the classroom. How many potential mates are sitting there? In other words, how many single females or males are there in the same classroom?

Evidence of Evolution. The Nobel Prize winning scientist Linus Pauling aptly described science as the search for truth. Science does this by continuously comparing its theories objectively with evidence in .

January 7, ] volution is the cornerstone of modern biology. It unites all the fields of biology under one theoretical umbrella. It is not a difficult concept, but very few people — the majority of biologists included — have a satisfactory grasp of it. One common mistake is believing that species can be arranged on an evolutionary ladder from bacteria through “lower” animals, to “higher” animals and, finally, up to man.

Mistakes permeate popular science expositions of evolutionary biology. Mistakes even filter into biology journals and texts. For example, Lodish, et. Misunderstandings about evolution are damaging to the study of evolution and biology as a whole. People who have a general interest in science are likely to dismiss evolution as a soft science after absorbing the pop science nonsense that abounds. The impression of it being a soft science is reinforced when biologists in unrelated fields speculate publicly about evolution.

This is a brief introduction to evolutionary biology. I attempt to explain basics of the theory of evolution and correct many of the misconceptions.

Genetic Algorithms and Evolutionary Computation

Elder Holland has also been very critical of the atheists and evolutionists, such as Richard Dawkins, Sam Harris, Daniel Dennett and the late Christopher Hitchens, who are some of the best known atheists an evolutionists. This is a talk he gave at BYU which mentions these four men by name: Bound By Loving Ties Talk:

The dating of the rocks depends on the evolutionary sequence of the fossils, but the evolutionary interpretation of the fossils depends on the dating of the rocks. No wonder the evolutionary system, to outsiders, implies circular reasoning.

The statistician Ronald Fisher — helped to form the modern evolutionary synthesis of Mendelian genetics and natural selection. The idea of evolution by natural selection was proposed by Charles Darwin in , but evolutionary biology, as an academic discipline in its own right, emerged during the period of the modern synthesis in the s and s. In the United States , many universities have created departments of molecular and cell biology or ecology and evolutionary biology, in place of the older departments of botany and zoology.

Palaeontology is often grouped with earth science. Haldane — helped to create the field of population genetics. Microbiology too is becoming an evolutionary discipline, now that microbial physiology and genomics are better understood. The quick generation time of bacteria and viruses such as bacteriophages makes it possible to explore evolutionary questions. Many biologists have contributed to shaping the modern discipline of evolutionary biology.

Spontaneous Generation and the Origin of Life

What is Darwin’s theory of relativity? Another scientist, Albert Einstein, proposed a “General theory of relativity” that has nothing to do with Darwin’s theory! Technically correct attribution of theories aside, Darwin’s theory of ‘relativity’ is that all living things are relatives! What was Darwin’s theory? Basically that species adapt to their environment by changing anddeveloping gradually, thus becoming more successful and bettersuited to survive and multiply.

The age of the earth is normally estimated by radiometric dating – which gives an ‘old earth’. What are the assumptions and weaknesses of this method? it is claimed by some that an old earth supports evolutionary theory and by implication removes the need for biblical creation. Some claim Genesis in particular, and the Bible in general.

Bible themes and stories Comparing origin stories: How Christians and Jews view the creation story of Genesis 1. Religious conservatives — both Jewish and Christian — generally believe that the Bible is inerrant , and that God directly inspired its authors. Thus, they believe that the creation story in Genesis must have been absolutely true, in its original or autograph copies: God formed the world, its life forms, and the rest of the universe in one continual act of creation.

They also differ in their estimate of the time interval taken for the creation sequence to be finished; these range from six hour days to billions of years. In those verses where Genesis conflicts with the theory of evolution, religious conservatives assume that the scientists must be wrong. Given sufficient time, they expect the scientists to see the light and discover the truth. Religious liberals, Agnostics, Atheists, Humanists, secularists, etc.

IB Biology/Option D – Evolution

However, by the 19th century Louis Pasteur and other scientists had seemingly dealt it [spontaneous generation] a deathblow, having proved by experiments that life comes only from previous life. How did it get here? In particular, they did not show that life cannot arise once, and then evolve. Neither Pasteur, nor any other post-Darwin researcher in this field, denied the age of the earth or the fact of evolution.

The top problems with evolution explained using scientific evidence against evolution. In the creation evolution controversy, it is clear not only that the theory of evolution is wrong, the theory of evolution is false, but that the theory of evolution is a lie.

Other problem-solving techniques Concisely stated, a genetic algorithm or GA for short is a programming technique that mimics biological evolution as a problem-solving strategy. Given a specific problem to solve, the input to the GA is a set of potential solutions to that problem, encoded in some fashion, and a metric called a fitness function that allows each candidate to be quantitatively evaluated.

These candidates may be solutions already known to work, with the aim of the GA being to improve them, but more often they are generated at random. The GA then evaluates each candidate according to the fitness function. In a pool of randomly generated candidates, of course, most will not work at all, and these will be deleted. However, purely by chance, a few may hold promise – they may show activity, even if only weak and imperfect activity, toward solving the problem.

These promising candidates are kept and allowed to reproduce. Multiple copies are made of them, but the copies are not perfect; random changes are introduced during the copying process. These digital offspring then go on to the next generation, forming a new pool of candidate solutions, and are subjected to a second round of fitness evaluation.

Those candidate solutions which were worsened, or made no better, by the changes to their code are again deleted; but again, purely by chance, the random variations introduced into the population may have improved some individuals, making them into better, more complete or more efficient solutions to the problem at hand. Again these winning individuals are selected and copied over into the next generation with random changes, and the process repeats.

The expectation is that the average fitness of the population will increase each round, and so by repeating this process for hundreds or thousands of rounds, very good solutions to the problem can be discovered.

Evolutionary Theories in Psychology

First, If you see someone claiming that carbon dating is used for fossil dating, you can pretty much throw out that persons arguments, or at least look very carefully and assume that the person is just quoting some text from a book supporting evolution and not really understanding the complexities of this subject.

Carbon dating is not used on fossils. Only on tissue samples of plants or animals, and only going back about 50, years. A person has to realize that this subject is not that straight forward.

That everything can eventually relate to evolutionary theory doesn’t make it evolutionary science. Just because a study is on the biological influences on sexuality and gender differences doesn’t make it evolutionary science.

Maybe it was just a few thousand years old — trapped by sediment in a catastrophic worldwide flood and fossilized. Since her initial discovery, Schweitzer, a molecular paleontologist at North Carolina State University, has found red blood cells, blood vessels, bone cells and even hemoglobin and collagen. A supposedly million-year-old duck-billed dinosaur bone has also yielded soft tissue.

The Christian Science Monitor reported this January that scientists found collagen, a protein basic to animal tissue, in an allegedly million-year-old fossil of a Lufengosaurus dinosaur in China. But Schweitzer, a conservative evangelical Christian who adheres to evolutionary theory, floated the theory in that iron may have preserved the soft tissue much like formaldehyde.

If shown to be true, her theory would take wind out of the sails of the young earth Christians. Schweitzer got her start in paleontology after studying molecular biology. She audited a course with famed paleontologist Jack Horner, the scientist who is trying to create dinosaurs in modern times from chicken DNA. Horner consulted for the movie Jurassic Park. Schweitzer was thrilled with the course, worked her way through her doctoral degree and began lab work under Horner.

Through three summers of digging , Horner unearthed a T. Because of the remoteness and rugged terrain, the bones had to be helicoptered out but were too heavy, so the team reluctantly broke one of the leg bones into two pieces.

Radiometric Dating and the Geological Time Scale

Favourable variations are ones that increase chances for survival and procreation. Those advantageous variations are preserved and multiplied from generation to generation at the expense of less-advantageous ones. This is the process known as natural selection. The outcome of the process is an organism that is well adapted to its environment , and evolution often occurs as a consequence.

Natural selection, then, can be defined as the differential reproduction of alternative hereditary variants, determined by the fact that some variants increase the likelihood that the organisms having them will survive and reproduce more successfully than will organisms carrying alternative variants.

Evolutionary principles drive our behaviors. Even with evolved cultural intricacies, we still use our subconscious in mate selection. According to the evolutionary attraction theory, heterosexual males select mates with physical indicators of fertility while women select mates for short term and long-term purposes. Mate selection is based on both physical indicators of fertility as well as the.

Sexiness Far from being conditioned to regard these things as important, Dunbar argued that men and women had evolved these preferences over millions of years of evolution. These were crucial qualities that enhanced the fitness of children, and, lest we forget, children are the key to the survival of our species. What hidden messages do we send the opposite sex? Pregnancy and breast-feeding place great stress on a mother, so females make the biggest investment in reproduction.

This is why women are choosier about their partners than men, with something women being the choosiest of all. This big parental investment also explains why women seek males who are willing to stick around and provide for children. Diamonds are a girl’s best friend But evolutionary theory tells us that resources should be just as important to women, if not more so. Good fathers need to have the means to feed offspring as well as the willingness to stick around.

In our evolutionary past, before resources meant a Rolex watch and a sports car, a well-heeled man was one with high status in a hunting tribe. High status males were often good hunters and likely to provide a steady supply of food. When the desire for reproduction is taken out of the equation, preferences change drastically. Dunbar has shown that lesbians were three times less likely to seek resources than heterosexual women.

But why should such an intangible quality like social skills score highly with heterosexual women?

Myths and misconceptions about evolution – Alex Gendler


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